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The following sequence diagram describes the high-level steps carried out in a sequence during the provisioning process. Customers can optionally automate the entire sequence using the RCTL CLI or REST APIs or their automation tools.

    participant rafay as Rafay
    participant admin as Admin
    participant dc as Datacenter <br> (Edge)

    note over rafay, dc: Upstream Kuberbetes Cluster Provisioning

    admin ->>rafay: Create Cluster
    admin ->>rafay: Download installer & installer
    admin ->>dc: Upload installer & credentials
    dc-->>dc: Run Installer
    dc->>rafay: Register with Rafay
    dc->>rafay: Installer Downloads <br>Software Packages <br> from Rafay Container Registry
    dc-->>dc: Installer Deploys <br> k8s software packages
    dc->>rafay: Kubernetes Cluster Checks In <br> (Managed by Rafay)

Detailed steps carried out in a sequence during the provisioning process

    participant User
    participant Node
    participant RafayController

    User->>RafayController: Download Conjurer binary from Rafay Controller
    User->>Node: Run conjurer binary on the node
    Node->>RafayController: Outbound connection on 443 Port
    Node->>Node: As part of Conjurer run, Prechecks will be done
    note over Node: Conjurer Hard Prechecks
    rect rgba(255,255,204,.6)
    Node-->>Node: Check for Unsupported Operating System
    Node-->>Node: Verify DNS Port Availability
    Node-->>Node: Test Connectivity to Controller
    Node-->>Node: Ensure Communication with NTP Server
    Node-->>Node: Check for Time Skew
    Node-->>Node: Verify Previous Kubernetes Installation
    Node-->>Node: Validate Hostname
    Node-->>Node: Firewalls check(fapolicyd, firewalld) only for linux
    Node-->>Node: Check Nameserver Rotation Option
    Node-->>RafayController: Node discovered

    note over Node, RafayController: If auto-approve configured
    RafayController-->>Node: Automatically approve node
    Node-->>RafayController: Meta information retrieval

    note over RafayController, Node: If not auto-approved
    User->>RafayController: Manually approve node
    RafayController-->>Node: Node approved

    note over Node, User: User configured roles determine actions
    User->>Node: Execute role-specific instructions

    note over Node, RafayController: Single node provisioning steps
    note over Node:  Node instructions sent by the Controller.
    rect rgba(255,255,204,.6)
        Node->>Node: Pull and install binaries (Kubernetes and other required binaries for the node)
        Node->>Node:Install and bring up Consul and etcd
        Node->>Node: Execute kubeadm init
        Node->>Node: Install CNI
        Node->>Node: Untaint the node
        Node->>Node: Install certificate generation component

        Node->>Node: Apply Rafay operator
    RafayController-->>Node: Wait for all pods to be up
    RafayController-->>RafayController: Mark cluster as READY

Demo Video

Watch a video of provisioning of a "Multi Master" upstream Kubernetes cluster on "CentOS" with only storage for persistent volumes.

STEP 1: Select Cluster Configuration

Review the supported cluster configurations and select your desired cluster configuration. This will determine the number of nodes you need to prepare to initiate cluster provisioning.

Type Number of Initial Nodes
Converged, Single Master 1 Nodes (1 Master/Worker)
Dedicated, Single Master 2 Nodes (1 Master + 1 Worker)
Converged, Multi Master 3 Nodes (3 Masters + 1 Worker)
Dedicated, Multi Master 4 Nodes (3 Masters + 1 Worker)

STEP 2: Prepare Nodes

Create VMs or bare metal instances compatible with the infrastructure requirements. Ensure that you have SSH access to all the instances/VMs


Ensure you have the exact number of nodes for initial provisioning as per the cluster configuration from the previous step. Additional worker nodes can be added once the cluster is successfully provisioned.

STEP 3: Create a Cluster

  • Login into the Console
  • Navigate to the project where you would like the cluster provisioned.
  • Click New Cluster
  • Select Create a New Cluster and click Continue
  • Select the Environment Data center / Edge
  • Select Package Type "Linux Installer"
  • Select Kubernetes Distribution "Upstream Kubernetes"
  • Enter the Cluster Name and click Continue


All the defaults are automatically selected and presented. Several options are available for customization.


  • Specify a location for the cluster (for multi-cluster workflows)


  • Select cluster blueprint and version. Users can select the default-upstream blueprint based on the requirement. To use the default-upstream blueprint, a storage node is mandatory

Note: On Day 1 operation, you can select any blueprint other than default-upstream if storage node is not available

Kubernetes Version

  • Select the Kubernetes version required to deploy. For arm worker nodes, the supported k8s version is always 1.20 onwards and the supported Operating System is Ubuntu
  • On upgrading k8s version to v1.26, containerd version is upgraded to 1.6.10

Operating System

  • Select the OS and Version you used for the nodes

General Settings

Cluster Settings

The Cluster Settings let users add their custom Cluster Labels needed during cluster provisioning. Include either Key-Value Labels or simply Key-Only Labels. You can also select the existing labels from the drop-down as shown below

General Settings


Integrated Storage

  1. Users can set the storage provider details along with the cluster creation process only when selecting a blueprint other than default-upstream. This is because no storage providers are integrated to those blueprint options.

Storage GlusterFS

  1. The Managed Storage is available as an add-on with the blueprint default-upstream, thus the users are not allowed to edit or change the default storage class rook-ceph at the time of cluster creation/provision.

    • To provision a HA Cluster using rook-ceph, it is recommended to have a minimum of three (3) storage nodes
    • To provision a non-HA Cluster using rook-cpeh, it is recommended to have a minimum of one (1) storage node

Storage Rook/


Raw disk partitions are only supported when using the rook-ceph managed add-on for the default-upstream blueprint versions from 1.12 to 1.15. Disk encryption is disabled in these versions to support raw disk partitions.


By default, as a security precaution, nodes need to be approved before joining a cluster. Auto Approval of nodes is available, and this can help streamline the cluster provisioning and expansion workflows.

  • Enable Approve Nodes Automatically if you do not require an approval gate for nodes to join the cluster

Kubernetes Masters

  • To provision a HA cluster using rook-ceph storage, enable the High Availability (Multi Master)
  • Select Dedicated Master if k8s masters to be tainted not to allow workload pods

Advanced Settings

HTTP Proxy

  • Select Enable Proxy if the infrastructure being used to provision the cluster is behind a forward proxy.

  • Configure the http proxy with the proxy information (ex:

  • Configure the https proxy with the proxy information (ex:
  • Configure No Proxy with Comma separated list of hosts that need connectivity without proxy
  • Configure the Root CA certificate of the proxy if the proxy is terminating non MTLS traffic
  • Enable" TLS Termination Proxy" if the proxy is terminating non MTLS traffic and cannot provide the Root CA certificate of the proxy.


Proxy configuration cannot be changed once the cluster is created.

Forward Proxy

Cluster Networking

  • Default subnet used for pod networking is ""
  • Default subnet used for k8s services is ""

If you want to customize the subnets used for Pod Networking and K8s Services:

  • Select CNI Providers from the drop-down, either Calico or Cilium.

For Cilium:

  • Windows, RHEL 7 and CentOS 7 are not supported
  • Linux kernel must be greater than or equal to 4.19.57

Note: To provision a windows worker node, it is mandatory to already have a Linux master node (Control Plane).

Refer Add Worker Nodes for more information on adding a window worker node to the upstream cluster

  • Configure the "Pod Subnet" with the subnet that you want to use
  • Configure the "Service Subnet" with the subnet that you want to use


Cluster Networking cannot be changed once the cluster is created

Custom CIDR

  • Click Continue

STEP 4: Installer and Credentials

Copy and run the commands that includes the credentials and passphrase.


The option you choose is the one you will use in the subsequent steps.

Linux Architecture

Prepare Nodes

  • Select Linux AMD64 (X86-64) for the system using 64bit processor developed by Intel/AMD
  • Select Linux ARM64 for the system using 64bit processor developed by ARM

    • Review the Node Installation Instructions section in the Console

Preflight Checks

It is strongly recommended to perform automated preflight tests on every node to ensure that it has "compatible" hardware, software, and configuration. View the detailed list of preflight checks.

  • Copy and run the command in Terminal

Run command for Conjurer and Secrets

Run Installer

  • Copy the command for Linux AMD 64 or Linux ARM 64
  • Open Terminal and run the command in Terminal. This command includes the contents of the credentials.pem and passphrase.txt files.

Run command for Conjurer and Secrets


Firewall Configuration for Inter Node Communication: Ensure that the host firewall is configured to allow inter node communication in multi node setup so that pod's can reach to the api server.

Windows Architecture

Prepare Nodes

Select Windows for the system using windows processor developed by Intel/AMD

To download Conjurer, the credentials, and the passphrase, you can either:

  • Manually download the files, or
  • Run a command that includes the credentials and passphrase.
  • Review the Node Installation Instructions section on the Console
  • Download the cluster bootstrap binary (i.e. Installer)
  • Download the cluster activation secrets, i.e., Passphrase and Credential files
  • SCP the three (3) files to the nodes you created in the previous step

An illustrative example is provided below. This assumes that you have the three downloaded files in the current working directory. The three files will be securely uploaded to the “/tmp” folder on the instance.

$ scp -i <keypairfile.pem> * ubuntu@<Node's External IP Address>:/tmp
  • Review the Node Installation Instructions section in the Console
  • Copy the command and Open Terminal
  • Paste and run the command in Terminal

Preflight Checks

Preflight Checks

It is strongly recommended to perform automated preflight tests on every node to ensure that it has "compatible" hardware, software, and configuration. View the detailed list of preflight checks.

Copy and run the command in terminal

Preflight Checks

Run Installer

  • Copy the command for Windows
  • Open Terminal and run the command in Terminal

An illustrative example is provided below:

sudo ./conjurer -edge-name="onpremcluster" -passphrase-file="onpremcluster-passphrase.txt" -creds-file="onpremcluster.pem -t

[+]  Initiating edge node install

[+] Provisioning node
      [+] Step 1. Installing node-agent
      [+] Step 2. Setting hostname to node-72djl2g-192-168-0-20-onpremcluster
      [+] Step 3. Installing credentials on node
      [+] Step 4. Configuring node-agent
      [+] Step 5. Starting node-agent

[+] Successfully provisioned node


For arm nodes, only worker nodes are supported

Conjurer is a “cluster bootstrap agent” that connects and registers the nodes with the Controller. Information about the Controller and authentication credentials for registration is available in the activation secrets files.

Note: After successful run of conjurer binary on windows node, reboot the windows node

Step 5: Salt Minion coexists with customer's salt minion

Conjurer binary has introduced a multi-minion option that allows installing Rafay salt-minion, which can run along with other salt-minion(s), already installed on the node by the customer.

  • Install multi-minion: Use -m (compatible with the pre-existing salt minions) along with the run conjurer command as shown in the below example to install the multi-minion:
sudo ./conjurer -m -edge-name="onpremcluster" -passphrase-file="onpremcluster-passphrase.txt" -creds-file="onpremcluster.pem -t
  • Uninstall multi-minion: Use -m -d as shown in the below example to remove salt-minion software from the customer node and not delete the pre-existed salt-minion’s default configuration or logs.
sudo ./conjurer -m -d -edge-name="onpremcluster" -passphrase-file="onpremcluster-passphrase.txt" -creds-file="onpremcluster.pem -t

Once the run conjurer step is complete, the node will show up on the Web Console with the status as DISCOVERED.

Run Conjurer

STEP 6: Approve Node

This is an optional approval step that acts as a security control to ensure that administrators can inspect and approve a node before it can become part of the cluster.

  • Click Approve button to approve the node to this cluster
  • In a few seconds, you will see the status of the node being updated to “Approved" in the Web Console
  • Once approved the status changes to APPROVED. The node is automatically probed and all information about the node is presented to the administrator on the Web Console.

Approve Node

STEP 7: Configure Node

This is a mandatory configuration step that allows the infrastructure administrator to specify the “role” for the node.


Without the configuration step, cluster provisioning cannot be initiated.

  • Select the cluster and click the Nodes tab
  • Click Configure
  • If the node is meant to be a k8s master, select the "master" role
  • If the node is meant to handle storage, select the storage location from the automatically detected list
  • Select the network interface that will be used for cluster networking from the automatically detected list of interfaces
  • Click Save

STEP 8: Provisioning

All the necessary configurations are provided, and the Controller can start provisioning Kubernetes with all required software add-ons. These will be automatically provisioned and configured to operationalize the cluster.

  • Click Provision. A message appears to confirm the provisioning process with a note "It can take 5-10 mins for the provision to complete"
  • Click Yes to proceed, and the status changes to Provisioning

Successful Provisioning


  • The end-to-end provisioning process can take time and is dependent on the number of nodes you are provisioning and the Internet bandwidth available to your nodes to download the necessary software
  • During cluster provisioning, the local private IP of nodes is injected as the first entity in the resolv.conf file. Avoid overriding this configuration, as consul relies on it for DNS resolution and serves as a load balancer across all control plane nodes

Below is an example of an upstream cluster with windows worker node

Successful Provisioning

Note: In the event of insufficient RAM during MKS cluster provisioning, the system dynamically allocates disk space to compensate for the memory shortage. While this process addresses the memory deficit, it's important to note that automatic swap off is disabled to exclusively utilize the available memory, without engaging disk-based swap.

Provisioning Successful

Once all the steps are complete and if the provision process was successful, you should see details about the cluster on the Web Console.

To view the cost details of this cluster, click on the available cost link. This will navigate you to the Cost Explorer page, where you can access detailed cost information for this specific cluster.

Successful Provisioning

On successful upstream cluster provision, users can view the detailed operations and workflow of the cluster by clicking the Operation Status Ready icon. The screen shows all the stages that occurred during cluster deployment

Successful Provisioning

Users can view the Nodes status and health in this page.

Successful Provisioning

If you encounter any provisioning or upgrade issues, check our Troubleshooting Guide.

Reset Cluster

Post-provisioning, users are allowed to RESET the upstream cluster to reuse the same cluster object in the console while a master node is reinstalled/re-provisioned.

  • Click Reset Cluster

Successful Provisioning

The below message appears to confirm the deletion

  • Click OK to proceed with the node deletion

Successful Provisioning

On successful cluster reset, nodes are deleted and you will see the below screen with no nodes

Successful Provisioning


The 'Reset Cluster' option is only visible if the user enables the reset flag; otherwise, it does not appear.


Once the "minion/node agent" is installed on the node by conjurer successfully and is registered with the controller, it establishes a "long running" web socket with the controller providing "continuous updates" to the controller about progress and status. This information is then presented to authorized administrators via the Console for insights. Optionally, administrators can also view the logs generated by the minion/node agent for detailed visibility.

tail -f /opt/rafay/salt/var/log/salt/minion

View Cluster Configuration

Administrators can view the provisioned cluster's configuration by clicking on the cluster and selecting the "Configuration" tab.

Provisioned Cluster Config